R&D Reports – Cargo Securing

Load distribution in containerLoad_distributions

In this paper, the bending moment capacity of typical container sides designed according to the standard has been investigated. Furthermore, the strength of typical transverse beams in the container floors has also been investigated and a comparison between the strength required to facilitate a uniformly distributed payload and the wheel load produced by a forklift have been made. Typical container designs have been analysed both globally and locally with calculations..




BeaconBedding arrangements in containers (BEACON)

As part of the revision of the IMO/ILO/UNECE Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units, MariTerm has performed a series of tests to determine the strength of containers and to suggest suitable bedding arrangements for concentrated loads.





paper201209Differences in Cargo Securing Regulations – How could we achieve harmonization?

This paper provides a study of existing cargo securing regulations applied for road transport by different national regulations, standards and guidelines. Since no universal standard has been globally accepted yet, differences in cargo securing requirements may lead to complexity, especially when multimodal transports are to be performed. The paper was written for the HVTT Conference in Stockholm 2012 and is available through the link below.




Report from Pulling Tests with Used Lashing EquipmentPullingTest

MariTerm AB has on behalf of the Swedish Transport Agency – Maritime Department performed a study by pulling used lashing equipment to break in order to find out at which level of wearing and damage lashing equipment has to be scraped. A pilot study was carried out at the site of Ro-Ro International AB in Gothenburg 2009-01-16 and main tests were carried out at the site of Forankra in Vårgårda 2009-04-15 and at the site of Ro-Ro International AB in Gothenburg 2009-04-16. Additional tests with Tor Lines trailer lashings were carried out at RoRo International 2009-04-29 and with provoked edge damages on new equipment at Forankra 2009-08-12 and 13.

The report from the pulling tests of used lashing equipment is available through the links below.


Inclination tests to determine the static friction factors for different material combinationsN 208 - SE Friction tests

MariTerm AB has on behalf of SIS performed practical tests of static friction using the Swedish cargo securing vehicle to test various friction surfaces and measure the static friction. During the tests, the test procedure prescribed by EN 12195-1 was followed.

The report from the inclination tests is available through the link below.




BREAKAGE – Transport Quality on Railway Regarding BreakageBREAKAGE

The railway has during the last decades lost market shares compared to other transport modes, which may be caused by the challenging transport environment, causing breakage damage. The reasons for breakage presume to be the acting forces during transport as well as the forces acting on cargo when railway wagons are shunted together. In the project we have analysed the breakage extent and the underlying reasons as well as identified the actions limiting the risk of breakage occurrence.

If the problems with breakage can be limited there is a large market of high valued cargo which can be transferred from road- to railway transports.

The report can be downloaded as a pdf-file through this link.

A PowerPoint presentation about the project can be downloaded through this link.

A press release including pictures can be downloaded through this link.

Video recordings from some of the tests can be downloaded through the links below:



The VERIFY project was accomplished during autumn 2004 with the purpose of verifying the basic principles that should be used in the common guidelines for cargo securing within EU.

Differences between principles mentioned in the internationally accepted guidelines, through IMO, were compared with principles mentioned in the European standard EN12195-1 as well as in the German VDI 2700 standard.

The report can be downloaded as a pdf-file through this link.





jvgRASLA – Equipment for rational cargo securing onboard railway wagons

The RASLA project for road vehicles was accomplished during summer 2001. Since the project was considered very successful it was proposed that a similar project for railway wagons should be initiated. Both Vinnova and the Swedish railway administration, as well as other external companies, contributed to financing and the project began in autumn 2002. The project has been titled “Utrustning for rationell säkring av last på järnvägsvagnar –jvgRASLA” (eng. ”Equipment for rational cargo securing onboard railway wagons –jvgRASLA”)

The report can be downloaded as a pdf-file through this link.





RASLA – Equipment for rational cargo securing onboard road vehicles

When the Swedish road administration through VVFS 1998:95 amended the TSVFS 1978:10 regulations about cargo securing onboard road vehicles, conditions for rational cargo securing were arisen.

On road vehicles equipment for rational cargo securing is missing to a large extent, which limits the possibility of improvements.

The industry took with this consideration in mind, the initiative to the RASLA project, with the purpose to develop proposals on equipment which should give drivers and shippers the possibility to fulfil the securing of cargo easier and faster. The project has been titled “Utrustning för rationell säkring av last på fordon- RASLA” (eng. ”Equipment for rational cargo securing onboard road vehicles- RASLA”).

The report can be downloaded as a pdf-file through this link.



MariTerm AB 1986 (156 pages)

The report discusses rules for transport of grain in bulk. Existing international rules, which chiefly also apply for transports in the Baltic area, have primarily been worked out according to proposals from the big grahttps://en.mariterm.se/wp-admin/post.php?post=95&action=editin exporting countries, USA, Canada and Australia. As basic material when setting up the rules, large bulk ships in ocean-going traffic have been used.

Based on:

  • More liberal, national rules for grain transports in restricted areas along the US/Canadian coasts,
  • the expected, smaller shift angle in restricted waters in relations to that of the oceans, and
  • the relatively few incidents and accidents recorded with grain carrying ships in restricted waters.

more liberal rules than the international ones have been proposed for transport of bulk grain in the Baltic area, including the Skagerrak. These rules mean that a free grain surface is assumed to shift maximum 12 degrees in the Baltic, instead of 15/25 degrees according to the international rules. However, the international stability requirements after a grain shift, are proposed to remain unchanged. Criteria for grain securing arrangements have also been dealt with.



MariTerm AB 1986 (135 pages)

This report presents an analysis of requirements and standards for securing equipment aboard ships and the level of the safety factor. Comparable rules and regulations are presented. These are:

  • Securing of containers according to classification societies
  • Standards for lifting equipment.

To determine the level of the safety factor for securing equipment, a method has been developed. According to this, the following are evaluated:

  • Acceleration affecting the cargo
  • Lashing force
  • The capacity of the lashings

The acceleration has a probability level corresponding to the maximum value in 20 years of what will effect the cargo. The lashing force is determined by means of a calculation model using statistical input values.The capacity of the lashings has been determined by testing, also taking into account the time factor for the equipment in use. The result is presented with suitable test methods and safety factors for different types of lashing equipment.



MariTerm AB 1984 (297 pages)

When the winter storms begin in the North Sea, cargo and trailers on board trailer ships will suffer damage. The reason for this is insufficient securing of trailers to the ship and of the cargo on the trailer. This report analyzes the problems and offers proposals for measures to be taken for the safe securing of trailers. It also proposes how to minimize the cost of handling damage on trailers.The report contains a thorough investigation of international and national rules and regulations, affecting the design and the use of road trailers, and can, in this context, be used as reference literature. An important part of the result is a proposal for standardiza-tion of lashing points in trailers and on ships.

The report contains the following main items:

  • The framework of regulations
  • Survey of products
  • Survey of damage and accidents
  • Specification of requirements
  • Suggested designs



MariTerm AB 1983 (142 pages)

A road trailer stowed on a Ro/Ro ship is difficult to describe in mathematical formulas. This report contains a complete description of a computer-based model with approximately 40 parameters, including ship, trailer and lashing parameters. The report also contains a large number of results from use of the model, as well as conclusions and recommendations for the establishment of international rules for lashing. The report has been supplied to IMO by the Swedish authorities.



MariTerm AB 1982 (361 pages)

Shifting of cargo on board a ship can cause damage to the cargo and risk the safety of the ship. Due to some severe accidents in 1980 a study was undertaken, the purpose of which was to propose common rules for calculation of forces acting on the cargo, and also to propose how to establish a ship’s manual for securing of the cargo. Swedish authorities have supplied IMO with the report as part of the Swedish work contribution to this field.

The report comprises the following main items:

  • Surveys and stated conclusions of some accidents due to the shifting of cargo
  • Mapping of rules and recommendations concerning the securing of cargo on board ships
  • Calculations of accelerations compared for different classification societies
  • Full-scale measurements of ship movements
  • Analysis of material properties in different types of securing equipment
  • Conclusion regarding occurring loads and required safety factor
  • Survey of lashing forces for some types of goods
  • Securing of road trailers on board Ro/Ro ships

This report that was published in 1982 as the first within this area is still a valuable source for those who wish to achieve a basic knowledge regarding stowage and securing of cargo onboard ships.


Further information

Further information can be obtained by contacting:

MariTerm AB, Sporthallsvägen 2A, SE-263 35 Höganäs, Sweden
Sven Sökjer-Petersen
+46 42 33 31 04